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Whole-Milk Buttermilk

Makes 1 quart

1 quart whole milk, preferably raw but not ultra pasteurized
about 1/4 cup buttermilk culture*

This is the easiest of all the cultured milks. Place milk in a glass container, add the buttermilk culture, stir well and cover. Keep at room temperature (but not higher than 80 degrees) until themilk thickens and curdles slightly. Chill well. Reserve 1/4 - 1/2 cup in a separate jar in the refrigerator for the next culture.

Note: A similar culture from Sweden is called fil mjolk.

Piima Starter Culture

1 cup good quality cream

1 envelope piima powder*

Piima culture (also called vili or Finnish culture) is derived from the milk of cows that feed on the butterwort plant. Centuries ago, Scandinavian farmers discovered that milk clabbered better when their cows consumed this herb.

Creme Fraiche

1 pt good quality cream
1 Tbsp. commercial or whole-milk buttermilk or commercial creme fraiche





European-style sour cream, called crème fraiche (and pronounced “creme fresh”) is a key ingredient to French cooking. It has a delicious flavor and is wonderful in creamed soups and sauces. In larger cities, crème fraiche is available at gourmet and health food stores.

Cream of Vegetable Soup

2 medium onions or leeks, peeled and chopped
2 carrots, peeled and chopped
4 Tbsp. butter
3 medium baking potatoes or 6 red potatoes, washed and cut up
2 quarts chicken stock or combination of filtered water and stock
several sprigs fresh thyme, tied together
½ tsp dried green peppercorns, crushed
4 zucchini, trimmed and sliced
sea salt or fish sauce and pepper

Chicken Stock (Bone Broth Soup)

1 whole free-range chicken or 2 - 3 pounds of bony chicken parts, such as necks, backs, breastbones and wings

gizzards from one chicken (optional)

feet from the chicken

4 quarts cold filtered water

1/2 tsp salt per quart of water

2 Tbsp. vinegar

1 large onion, coarsely chopped

2 carrots, peeled and coarsely chopped

3 celery sticks, coarsely chopped

1 bunch of parsley